What Is 5G?

                                                                    5G

5G means Fifth Generation Wireless technology Which is used In Mobile Devices. This 5G Came to Public Use In 2019 In some Countries Like the USA, UAE, Belgium, Australia. Now Optical Fiber cable (OFC) and Signal Transmitters are used in Transmitting 5G technology, In Future Every service Provider will use 5G Antennas to Send the wireless Signals. The Percentage Of OFC in 5G Signals is nearly 70%.

In 5G Technology The Waves Are Divided into Millimeter wave (mmWave), Mid Band, Low Band. This low band Will use the Same 4G Frequency to Transmit 5G.

In Terms Of Actual Speed, 5G is 20 times faster than 4G. the Download speed will be Nearly  20GB/Sec and Upload Speed will be 10GB/Sec.

History Of 5G

  1. In April 2008, USA-  NASA Partnered with Geoff Brown9 and Machine to machine Intelligence (M2Mi) Corp to Develop 5G Technology
  2. In 2008, South Korea-  the South Korean IT Reserch&Development program of “5G mobile communication systems based on beam-division multiple access and relays with group cooperation” was formed.
  3. In August 2012, USA-  New York University Developed A Wireless technology Called NYU WIRELESS, a multi-disciplinary academic research center to work on 5G wireless communications
  4. On 8 October 2012, the United Kingdom- the UK’s University of Surrey Funded £35M for a new 5G research center in the UK with some key international mobile operators and infrastructure Like Huawei, Samsung, Telefonica Europe, Fujitsu Laboratories Europe, Rohde & Schwarz, and Aircom International.
  5. On 1 November 2012, London- In the EU project Started “Mobile and wireless communications Enablers for the Twenty-twenty Information Society” (METIS) starts its Work toward the Workspace And 5G Equipment.
  6. On 12 May 2013, South Korea-  Samsung Electronics Released a Press release That their Company Had developed a “5G” system. This technology has a max speed of 10Gbit/s.
  7. On 23 July 2013, India & Israel- India and Israel agreed to work jointly on 5G development In Both Countries.
  8. On 1 October 2013, Japan- NTT (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone)  to launch the world’s first 5G network in Japan
  9. On 6 November 2013, China- A Company Named Huawei announced its plans to start investing $600 million into the Research & Development of 5G.
  10. On 3 April 2019, Seoul- South Korean Government announced that South Korea became the first country to adopt 5G
  11. In June 2019, Manila- Philipines Government Announced that the Philippines became the first Country In Southeast Asia to roll out the 5G the network.
  12. On 25 December, USA- AT&T brought 5G realtime service to consumers and businesses in December 2019.

Radio frequencies Developed For 5G

The new air interface is defined by 3GPP for 5G technology is known as New Radio (NR), and the specifications are subdivided into two frequency bands, FR1 (which will be below 6 GHz) and FR2 (mmWave) with Different Configurations.

Frequency range 1 (< 6 GHz )

The maximum bandwidth defined for FR1 is 100 MHz, due to the Lack of continuous spectrum in this overcrowded frequency range. The band most widely being used for 5G will be around 3.5 GHz. Now The Korean carriers are using 3.5 GHz although some millimeter wave spectrum has also been allocated.

Frequency range 2 (> 24 GHz )

The minimum bandwidth defined for FR2 Which Will be at 50 MHz and will be extended will up to 400 MHz, with two-channel aggregation supported in 3GPP Release 15. In the U.S., Verizon a Network Company using 28 GHz and AT&T another Network Company is using 39 GHz. 5G network can use frequencies of up to 300 GHz. Due to this Frequency range, 5G Network can support up to approximately 1,000 more devices per meter than 4G.

FR2 coverage

5G network in the 24 GHz range or above will use the higher frequencies than 4G network Due to Load, and as a result, some 5G signals are not Strength of traveling large distances like 4G or lower frequency 5G signals (sub 6 GHz). This requires placing new 5G base stations for every hundred meters to use higher frequency bands. Also, these higher frequency 5G Network signals cannot penetrate solid objects easily, such as cars, trees, and walls, buildings, Other Metal objects, because of the nature of these higher electromagnetic waves. 5G cells can be deliberately designed to use in places like restaurants and shopping malls.

Massive MIMO

IF MIMO (multiple-input and multiple-output) antennas increases in sector throughput and capacity density using the large numbers of antennas and Multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO). Each antenna Should be individually-controlled and may embed with radio transceiver components. The term “massive MIMO” was named by Nokia Bell Labs researcher named Dr. Thomas L. Marzetta in the year 2010 and has been launched in 4G networks, such as Softbank in Japan.

Edge computing

Edge computing will be delivered by the computing servers closer to the ultimate user as It reduces latency and data traffic congestion.

Small cell

Small cells will be low-powered cellular radio access nodes that need to operate in licensed and unlicensed spectrum areas which will a have a range of 10 meters to a few kilometers. These Small cells are Dangerous to 5G networks because 5G’s radio waves cannot travel long distances.

Beamforming

Beamforming is used to direct radio waves to a target. This is achieved by combining elements in an antenna array in such a way that signals at particular angles experience constructive interference while others experience destructive interference. This improves signal quality and data transfer speeds. 5G uses beamforming due to the improved signal quality it provides. Beamforming can be accomplished using phased array antennas.

NOMA (non-orthogonal multiple access)

NOMA (non-orthogonal multiple access) is a multiple-access technique that will be for future cellular systems.

SDN/NFV

Initially, cellular / mobile communications technologies that were designed in the context of providing the voice services and Internet access. Today a new era of tools and technologies which are hiking development of a new pool of applications for PC Or Smartphones. These applications will Have different domains such as the Internet of Things (IoT), web-connected vehicles, remotely controlled robots, and Other sensors connected to give access to various applications. 

Operation in unlicensed spectrum[edit]

In Unlicensed Spectrum of  5G NR will also support operation in an unlicensed spectrum (NR-U).

5G Devices

Smartphones ( Samsung Galaxy S20 Ultra, Sony Xperia 1 II, Mi 10 Pro, ZTE Axon 10s Pro, Samsung S10+ 5G, Galaxy Note 10+, Oneplus 7 Pro 5G, Huawei Mate X, LG V50 ThinQ, Nokia 8.2, Realme X50 pro, IQOO 3, Samsung A90), Modems, Antennas, Smartwatches, Routers Etc

Interference issues

The provided spectrum used by various 5G networks provided will be near to passive remote sensings such as by weather and Earth observation satellites which are used particularly for water vapor monitoring. This Interference will occur and will potentially be significant without any effective controls. This will lead to Interference to satellite operations that impairs numerical weather prediction performance with a substantially deleterious economic and public safety impacts in areas such as commercial aviation departments. 

These concerns prompted the U.S. Secretary of Commerce named Wilbur Ross and NASA Administrator named Jim Bridenstine in February 2019 to urge the FCC to delay some restriction spectrum auction proposals, which were rejected. The members of the House Appropriations Committee and House Science Committee wrote separate letters to FCC department chair Ajit Pai asking for further review and consultation with NOAA, NASA, and DoD, and warning of harmful impacts that will happen to the national security. Acting NOAA director named Mr. Neil Jacobs testified before the House Committee in May 2019 that 5G out-of-band the emissions will start to produce a 30% reduction in weather forecast accuracy and the resulting degradation in ECMWF model performance would have resulted in the failure to predict the track of weather and thus the impact of Superstorm Sandy in 2012. The United States Navy department on 21 March 2019 wrote a memorandum about warning of deterioration and made some technical suggestions to control the band bleed-over limits, for the testing and the fielding, and for coordination of the wireless industry and regulators with weather forecasting organizations.

In 2019 at the World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC), the atmospheric scientists who advocated for a strong buffer of −55 decibel watts (dBW), and the European regulators were agreed on recommendations of −42 dB, and the US regulators (the FCC) recommended a restriction of −20 dBW, which will be 150 times weaker than the European Union proposal. The ITU decided on an intermediate −33 dBW for a limit until 1 September 2027 and after that a to the standard of −39 dBW. This is closer to the European Union recommendation but even the more delayed higher standard which is much more weaker than that pleaded for by atmospheric scientists, the triggering warnings from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and that the ITU standard, at 10 times less stringent than its required recommendation, brings the “potential to significantly degrade the accuracy of data collected”. A representative of the American Meteorological Society (AMS) also warned of interference, and the European Centre for the Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), sternly warned, saying that society has risks “history repeating itself” by ignoring atmospheric scientists’ on warnings (referencing the global warming, and monitoring of which could be imperiled). In December 2019, the bipartisan request was sent from the US House Science Committee to the Government Accountability Office (GAO) to investigate that why there is such a discrepancy between recommendations of US civilian and military science agencies and the regulator of 5G Network,  the FCC.

Surveillance concerns

Due to the fears of potential espionage data of foreign users by Chinese equipment vendors, like Huawei, ZTE several countries (including Australia and the United Kingdom as of early 2019) have taken actions to restrict or eliminate the use of Chinese 5G equipment in their respective 5G networks areas. Chinese vendors and the Chinese government have denied these claims from countries. 

In 2019, the United States stated via its FBI and the British GCHQ, other important intelligence agencies, and several criminal prosecuting organizations, which are heavily involved in adjusting surveillance standards. The 5G network security architecture is being adjusted to allow as much as the metadata as possible to be collected for mass surveillance purposes.

 This happens via the 3SALI meetings of the 3GPP standardization organization.

A report published by the European Union Commission and the European Agency for Cybersecurity details the security issues which were surrounding around the 5G while notoriously trying to avoid mentioning Huawei. The report warns against using a single supplier for a carrier’s 5G infrastructure, especially those based on who were outside the European Union. (Nokia and Ericsson are the only European network manufacturers of 5G network equipment.)

In February 2020, the well-known publisher named Wall Street Journal reported that a Chinese company named Huawei has had the ability to secretly can use to exploit backdoors intended for law enforcement officials since 2009. These backdoors are found on network carrier equipment like antennas and routers which were the main part in establishing a Network. Huawei’s network equipment is more widely used in all parts around the world due to its low cost and maintenance.

Health concerns

The development of the 5G technology has elicited a wide range of responses regarding concerns that 5G radiation could have an adverse health effect An opinion piece published on Scientific American’s online blog section asserts that complete scientific research regarding its effects has not been conducted and that there could be more health risks. Another article in the same online blog offers outlooks from both sides of the debate on 5G Network and ends in a call for more and the higher quality studies on the issue of health effects. Wired characterized fears that the 5G technology could cause cancer, infertility in men, autism, Alzheimer’s, and a mysterious wide range of bird deaths as “conspiracy theory. The US FCC and nearly all other all regulators claim 5G radiation will have no significant health effects on humans and birds.

In April 2019, the city in Europe named Brussels in Belgium blocked a 5G network trial because of radiation laws. In Geneva, Switzerland has a planned upgrade to 5G which was stopped for the same reason. The department of Swiss Telecommunications Association (ASUT) has said that studies have been unable to show that 5G frequencies have any health impact on humans as birds. Several Swiss cantons adopted moratoriums on 5G network technology on health grounds, though the federal offices in charge of environment and telecommunications say that the cantons have no jurisdiction these things. 

Dr. Paul Ben-Ishai, a member of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem’s Physics department in Israel, recently noted detailed how human sweat ducts act like an array of helical network antennas when exposed to 5G wavelengths or radio waves. When this occurs, Electromagnetic waves interact in complex forms, which results in potential health effects.

Health concerns related to the radiation from cell telephone towers and cell telephones are not new. Although the electromagnetic hypersensitivity is not scientifically recognized, to be diffuse symptoms such as headache and tiredness have been more claimed to result from exposure to electromagnetic fields such as those that carry 5G signals and Wi-Fi. However, 5G technology presents will start new issues that depart from 4G technology, namely, higher microwave frequencies from 2.6 GHz to 28 GHz, when compared to 700–2500 MHz typically used by 4G signals. Because the higher millimeter wave used in 5G does not penetrate objects easily, this requires the installation of antennas every few hundred meters, which has sparked concern among the public.

An international appeal to the European Union made on September 13, 2017, garnered over 180 signatures from the scientists representing 35 unique countries

. They cite concerns over the 10 to 20 billion connections to the 5G network and the subsequent an increase in RF-EMF exposure affecting the global populace very constantly. The appeal also references the International Agency for Research on Cancer’s (IARC) conclusion in 2011 that the frequencies 30 kHz – 300 GHz are likely very carcinogenic in humans. This research was seemingly very confirmed by the US Department of Health and Human Services’ National Toxicology Program (NTP), which studied the prolonged exposure to RF 5G radiation on rats and noticed a significant increase in cancer formation.

Critics of 5G say that these millimeter wavelengths have not been tested extensively on the general public. Most experts believe that the more scientific research is needed, as, even though millimeter wave 5G technology has been used in technology such as military radar for many decades, there is considerable research regarding the association of cancer to the use of radar devices by police officers. United States Senator named Richard Blumenthal in 2018 said “I know of no reliable studies—classified or otherwise—that have been done about 5G technology. There may have been studies by the military but, so far as I know, they failed to meet the specifications that are the required in terms of the numbers of animals or other ways of measuring that would be very required.”

In 2018, Dr. Martin Pall, Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry and Basic Medical Sciences department at Washington State University believes “Putting in tens of millions of 5G antennae without a single biological test of safety has got to be about the most stupidest idea anyone has had in the history of the world.” He cites the increased number of phased arrays, the high energy pulses which can easily penetrate into the body, and the bulk of antennae required to operate the network as potential causes for concern.

Writings in The New York Times in 2019, 

William Broad reported that RT America began airing the programming linking 5G network to harmful the health effects, such as “brain cancer, infertility in men, autism, heart tumors, and Alzheimer’s disease”. The Broad asserts that the claims, which he states have increased in 2019, have spread to the hundreds of blogs and websites but they “lack scientific support.

In January 2019, more than the 180 scientists and doctors from 36 countries sent a letter to the officials of the European Union demanding a moratorium on the  5G coverage in Europe until potential hazards for human health have been fully investigated. According to the “Statement on the emerging health and the environmental issues (2018)” edited by European Commission’s Scientific Committee on the  Health, Environmental and Emerging Risks (SCHEER), “5G networks will soon be rolled out for the mobile phone and smart device users. How the exposure to electromagnetic fields could affect humans remains a controversial area, and the studies have not yet yielded clear evidence of the impact on mammals, birds or insects. The lack of the clear evidence to inform the development of the exposure guidelines to 5G technology leaves the open the possibility of the unintended to biological consequences.

According to the  CNET “Members of Parliament in the Netherlands are also calling on the government to take a closer look at 5G network which will have an effect on health. Switzerland is good at taking steps to monitor 5G’s impact on people. Several leaders in the Congress have written to the Federal Communications Commission expressing concern about potential health risks. In Mill Valley, California, the city council blocked the deployment of new 5G wireless cells.” Similar concerns were raised in Vermont and New Hampshire cites which 5G network is tested. 

In February 2019, Senator Blumenthal questioned the  5G industry representatives about health risks and the related studies, finding that the industry has not done any studies, nor were any ongoing.

In July 2019, in The New York Times wrote an article detailing how an influential study from the year 2000. which determined that the wireless technology carried a very high chance of causing a negative health effect in humans, made a scientific error by the failure to study the protective benefits of human skin. The article claimed that the many of the alleged health concerns around 5G network and other wireless technologies in humans have not been scientifically proven.

In August 2019, a court in the USA decided that the  5G technology will not be deployed any more without environmental impact and historic preservation reviews. In the third quarter of 2019, after campaigning by activist groups, a series of small localities in the UK, including Totnes, Brighton and Hove, Glastonbury, and Frome passed the resolutions against the implementation of further 5G infrastructure in that areas

. For example, the Totnes Town Council passed a symbolic moratorium on the building of additional 5G network masts pending additional research on the health effects of 5G. In  2020, Ofcom, the UK regulatory body, revealed the results of 5G network radiation testing in 10 cites. No health risks were identified and the result of measurement equated to 0.039% of the safe exposure level.

Security concerns

On 18 October 2018, a team of researchers from the ETH Zurich, the University of Lorraine and the University of Dundee released a paper entitled, “A Formal Analysis of 5G network Authentication. It alerted that 5G technology could open the ground for a new era of security threats to take over. The paper described the technology as “immature and insufficiently tested,” the one that “enables the movement and access of vastly higher quantities of data, and thus broadens attack surfaces”. Simultaneously, the network security companies such as Fortinet, Arbor Networks, A10 Networks, and Voxility advised on the personalized and mixed security deployments against the massive DDoS attacks foreseen after 5G deployment.

IoT Analytics estimated an increase in the number of IoT devices, which enabled by 5G technology, from 7 billion in 2018 to 21.5 billion by 2025. This can raise the attack surface for these devices to a substantial scale, and the capacity for DDoS attacks, crypto-jacking, and other cyberattacks could boost proportionally.

Marketing of the Non-5G services

In various parts of the world, the carriers have launched numerous differently branded technologies, such as “5G Evolution”, which advertise the improving existing networks with the use of “5G technology”. However, these pre-5G networks are an improvement on the specifications of existing LTE networks that are not exclusive to the 5G network. While the technology promises to deliver faster speeds and is described by AT&T as a “foundation for our evolution to 5G while the 5G standards are being finalized,” it cannot be considered to be a true 5G network. When AT&T company announced 5G Evolution, with  4×4 MIMO, the technology that AT&T is using to deliver the faster speeds, had already been put in the place by T-Mobile without being branded with the 5G network moniker. It is claimed that such branding is a marketing move that will cause confusion with the consumers, as it is not made that clear that such improvements are not true 5G network.

5G Mobile Modems

Qualcomm ( X55, X50 ), MediaTek ( Dimensity Series ), Intel Modems Etc

5G Mobile Processors

Qualcomm ( SD865, SD765 & SD765G ), MediaTek Dimensity (1000, 800)

 Applications

In Health Care

The Technology of 5G Called Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communications (URLLC) Is Used improve remote patient monitoring and remote surgery for patients

In Automobile Industry

5G Automotive Association has been promoting the C-V2X communication technology for a long time that will first be deployed in 4G. C-V2X provides Direct communication between vehicles and communication between vehicles and infrastructures and to increase self-driving cars and the Internet of Things.

Public Saftey

In Public safety Mission-critical push-to-talk (MCPTT) or Mobile calls and mission-critical video or Video calls and data are expected in 5G.

Fixed Connections

In Fixed wireless connections needed to replace fixed-line broadband (ADSL, VDSL, Fiber optic, and DOCSIS connections) with 5G for better connections

Smart Home

5G is used in Smart Home with lighting, heating, or other electronic devices that can be controlled remotely by smartphone. Compared to existing wireless technologies such as WLAN, Bluetooth Low Energy, Zigbee, Z-Wave, and other such technologies, 5G will work more optimized with various performance requirements.

Availability

Adopted

5G Signal is Available In Countries like Qatar, China, Finland, Germany, Uruguay, United States, United Kingdom, Thailand, South Korea, South Korea, San Marino, Romania, Philippines, Monaco, Japan, Italy, Ireland, Australia.

Planned

India, Mexico, Sweden, Panama, Vietnam, Taiwan, Russia, Poland, Pakistan, Norway, Netherlands, New Zeland, Canada, Bulgaria, Argentina.

Cost

The Cost Of 5G Network Will is 15 Times More Than the 4G Network. By the Time Goes The Technology will get Older and Will is Available At A Lower price.

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